Video: Cerro Torre by Fair Means

Cerro Torre by Fair Means from Patagonia on Vimeo.

前陣子跟幾位朋友聊到Cerro Torre(托雷峰)與bolting觀念,翻出這支影片,就起了翻譯的念頭


At the southern tip of Argentina, between the rolling pompas, lakes, and Patagonian ice cap rises a mile-high granite spire called Cerro Torre. It’s like an alpinist’s dream, dauntingly steep from all sides, and it draws climbers from around the globe. It drew me there. My name is Kelly Cordes, and not long ago, some astounding events transpired on Cerro Torre that again raised the question: How far will we go to try to climb something?

在阿根廷南端,在隨風起浪的草原、無數湖泊與巴塔哥尼亞冰帽之間,一座三千多米高的花崗岩尖塔拔地而出,每一面皆極為陡峭。這是托雷峰,也是許多登山家的夢想,吸引著來自世界各地的攀登者,包括我。我是Kelly Cordes。不久之前,托雷峰上才剛發生一連串令人驚愕的事件,再次引人深思:為了攀登,我們會有哪些所為、所不為?


For this story, you’ll need some important history. Over 40 years ago, competition for the first ascent of Cerro Torre was fierce. In 1970, an obsessed climber from Italy named Cesare Maestri, hauled up a 300-pound gas-powered compressor, and installed some 400 bolts along the mountain’s southeast ridge. He completely ignored natural features, forcing his way upward, until he retreated just below the summit. Other climbers would later finish it to the top. Maestri’s line and tactics became known as the Compressor Route, and climbers worldwide considered it a sacrilege to Cerro Torre.

在講這個故事之前,我們先提一些重要的歷史。40多年前,追求托雷峰首攀的競爭相當激烈。1970年,一位執著的義大利登山家Cesare Maestri帶了一台300磅動力的空氣壓縮機,在托雷峰東南稜上打了400多個bolt。他完全無視天然岩壁特徵,硬是打出了一條直上路線,但最後在峰頂下方不遠處撤退,之後有其他攀登者沿著這條路線登頂。Maestri打出的路線被稱為compressor route(空氣壓縮機路線),全世界的登山家將之視為對托雷峰的褻瀆。


Four years later, in 1974, four rival climbers from Italy’s Ragni di Lecco group succeeded in making the peak’s true first ascent, climbing the fantastic west face to the summit. Puzzlingly, on the opposite side of the mountain, Maestri’s bolts remained. Even more puzzling, over the years, the Compressor Route became the most popular route on the peak.

四年後,1974年,四位競爭對手—義大利的Ragni di Lecco團隊,成功地由西面首攀了托雷峰。弔詭的是,在托雷峰另一側,Maestri的bolt仍留了下來,更弔詭的是,接下來的數年中,compressor route變成最熱門的登頂路線。


Not everybody took the Compressor Route, though. From the first ascent until Jan. 16, 2012, 38 years, three new lines were established to Cerro Torre’s summit without relying on the Compressor Route’s bolt ladders to reach the top. Patagonia gear testers and ambassadors were involved in all three of those ascents. Here are their stories, first hand.

不過並非所有人都走compressor route。從托雷峰首攀的1974年,到2012年1月16日,這38年之間,共建立了三條不用compressor route上bolt樓梯的新登頂路線。Patagonia裝備測試技師參與了這三次登頂行程。以下是他們的第一手故事。


We start with Argentine climber Rolando Garibotti, who’s widely considered the world’s foremost authority on Patagonian climbing. In Nov. 2005, Garibotti joined Italian climbers Alessandro Beltrami and Ermanno Salvaterra to make the first ascent of El Arca de los Vientos, the first route to summit Cerro Torre from the north.

第一位是阿根廷登山家Rolando Garibotti,他是舉世公認的巴塔哥尼亞攀登權威。2005年11月,他跟義大利登山家Alessandro Beltrami 以及Ermanno Salvaterra建立了托雷峰第一條北面登頂路線:El Arca delos Vientos。


“I first tried Cerro Torre when I was 17 years old, in 1989, via the Compressor Route. That time we got to 5 pitches from the top. But using the Compressor Route’s bolts did not seem like a fair way to climb the mountain. So I lost interest and did not go back. 15 years passed before I was ready to actually try to climb Cerro Torre. One evening, in late 2005, Ermanno Salvaterra and I fixed our two climbing ropes. The next morning, with Alessandro climbing, we moved fast, climbing 900 meters in our first day. Having past all the last signs of previous attempts, on day 2, we negotiated the north face. A granite slab capped by giant mushrooms. Late in the day we negotiated the mushrooms themselves. These mushrooms are big blocks of unconsolidated frost, and have the consistency of cotton candy. They are somewhat frightening to climb. We reached the top of Cerro Torre at 11 PM. It was dark, and it was snowing. It was far from an ideal situation – being on the summit in the middle of the night, and in bad weather. But we were so content with what we did that we did not have a care in the world.”

「1989年,我17歲時,第一次嘗試攀登托雷峰,那時我們走compressor route,差5個繩距到頂。但使用那條路線的bolt似乎不是攀登那座山的公平方式,所以我沒興趣再回去爬第二次。15年後,我終於準備好再次挑戰托雷峰。2005年下旬的一個晚上,我跟Salvaterra架好兩條固定繩,隔天早上,我們跟Alessandro一起快速攀登,第一天就上升了900米。從第二天起,我們已越過所有前人嘗試的痕跡,開始攀越托雷峰北壁,那是一面蓋滿巨大蘑菇形冰帽的花崗岩斜板。那天稍晚,我們開始攀爬那些蘑菇形的冰帽。這些蘑菇是大塊大塊未完全固結的霜,且有如棉花糖一樣均勻,攀爬起來相當可怕。我們在晚上11點時登頂,四周全黑,且下著雪。在半夜、壞天氣中站上山頂這種事,遠非理想,但我們當時感到無比滿足,什麼情況都不在意。」


The next season, Colin Haley and I climbed the line called Los Tiempos Perdidos, which ends at the Col of Hope – it had never been completed to the top – and linked it to the 1974 West Face Route, taking it to the summit. Here’s Colin.

下一個攀登季,我跟Colin Haley建立了Los Tiempos Perdidos這條路線,它最後要從Col of Hope(希望隘口)接上1974年的西面路線,再上至山頂。以下是Colin的敘述。


“At the last hour of our trip, we hiked up the upper Adela glacier to the base of Cerro Torre’s south face, and without hanging around long enough to let any doubt seed, we just attacked. We planned to simul climb as much as possible. Looking back, I think we might have been a little bit naïve as to what we were heading into, but it was awesome, and we went for it.

「我們那次行程最後一段路,是上溯Adela冰河,到托雷峰南壁基部。在那裡,我們沒停留太久,沒讓自己有時間想太多、開始懷疑,而是直接起攀。我們的計畫是同時攀登(simul climb),盡量快速。現在回想,當時有點天真,並沒有預料到自己即將面對的是什麼。但一切實在太壯麗,我們就這樣開始了。


“The first half of our climb was a kind of classic, Chamonix-style ice gulleys which was super cool, especially because it was on the south face of Cerro Torre, which is pretty much one of the most badass faces in the world even though we were only on the side of it. Arriving at the Col of Hope, we stopped for a couple of hours to rest and to melt water, and we were looking out to the ice cap to our west and, and looking up, the climbing changes dramatically and it’s just prime ice which forms these crazy globules all over the mountains. It’s like what Doctor Seuss does to normal 60-degree ice fields. It’s like no other ice climbing we had ever done anywhere before or since. Early on our second day, we stood on the top of Cerro Torre. I mean after an absolutely fantastic climb, for me it was just a complete dream come true. That was so surreal, that climb was the type of climb that you wait years for and remember for a long time.”

「前半段是超酷的典型夏慕尼式冰溝,想到我們正在攀爬舉世聞名的托雷峰南壁,就覺得特別讚,雖然那時我們才剛碰到它的邊而已。抵達Col of Hope後,我們休息了數小時,融雪喝水。我們眺望西邊的冰帽,然後往上看,發現接下來的攀登形式完全變得不同,山頂蓋滿球形的純冰,有如蘇斯博士筆下的60度冰原*。那樣的冰攀,是我們之前、以後在任何地方都沒有經歷過的。隔天早上,我們終於站上托雷峰頂。那是一次夢幻般的攀登,對我而言則完全是一個夢想成真,感覺超乎現實。那是一種讓你等待多年、並能長久回味的攀登經驗。」

* 譯註:Dr. Seuss蘇斯博士,美國童書畫家,他的書中世界不管是顏色還是背景都非常的詭異與不合理(對被社會化的成年人來說)。這段話的意思是「就像是蘇斯博士對正常的60度冰原動過了手腳一樣」,意指這地形詭異到像是童書裡的奇幻世界


Maybe the idea of fair play was taking hold on Cerro Torre. And the 1974 West Face route was becoming increasingly popular. Here’s Garibotti again.



“In late 2008, for the first time ever, Cerro Torre was climbed more times without the Compressor Route bolt ladders than with them. It seemed to me that finally the entire community had realized that how you climb is far more important than just getting to the top.

「2008年下半,不用compressor route攀登托雷峰的次數首度超過了經由compressor route的攀登次數。我想這表示攀登界開始意識到,攀爬一座山的過程,遠比登頂這件事重要。


Still, an obvious prize remained. The beautiful southeast ridge, home to the infamous Compressor Route. But to climb it fairly, without relying on the bolt ladders…

Enter young climbers Hayden Kennedy and Jason Kruk in Jan. 2012. Here’s Hayden, talking about their historic first fair means ascent of Cerro Torre’s southeast ridge and their decision to clean over 120 of the bolts on their descent.

然而,有個獎項仍尚待有人贏得:從托雷峰美麗的東南稜登頂,不過不靠compressor route的那些bolt,公平攀登。2012年1月,年輕的登山家Hayden Kennedy跟Jason Kruk成功做到了。以下請Hayden談談他們歷史性的攀登,以及他們下山路上清除120多個bolt的決定。


 ↑Jason Kruk跟攀其中一段繩距

“We started the route and we climbed the kind of initial 300 meters of ice and mixed to get to the Col of Patience and we bivied there actually. So then the next morning we stripped down super light. We got up really early in the morning and started climbing in the dark. The first 14 pitches to get to where the bolts really start is just spectacular climbing. It was unreal granite. It was quite moderate, but really, really good. Unreal. And you’re looking at the headwall the entire time, so it was like this big looming monster, ‘cause you’re like ‘I don’t know if this goes, what’s it gonna be like up there,’ but then at the same time, it’s cool because you’re kinda like right in the present moment. At the head wall, at the 90-meter bolt traverse, you look up and you see these line of bolts, and that’s all you see, but when you look past that, you see features, you see climbable features, you see the way, the path. I mean that’s what we do as climbers. It just feels good to climb on the spire and, you know, actually climb it, use your hands and feet.

「這條路線一開始,我們先攀爬了300米左右的冰雪岩,抵達Col of Patience(耐心隘口)並在那裡露宿。隔天早上我們極度輕裝出發,很早就在黑暗中起攀。前14個繩距是非常棒的攀爬,爬完後到了開始有bolt的地方。花崗岩美得彷彿不真實,不太難,但爬起來感覺非常、非常好。感覺很不真實啊。一路上你不時會抬起頭來看著headwall,就像一隻逐漸現身的巨獸,你會忍不住去想「這樣真的可行嗎,上面會遇到什麼狀況?」但與此同時,當下的前進又是如此美好。在headwall前有段90米的橫渡,你抬頭,視線就會被整排整排的bolt占據。但你如果往更遠處看,你會看見岩壁,看見可以攀爬的天然特徵,那就是你的路線。是我們攀登者的路線。這就是我們身為攀登家所做的。攀登這座尖塔的感覺太美妙了,我們正用自己的手腳,扎實的、確確實實的攀爬著它。


“Yeah, I mean we stood the whole route in like 13 hours I think, from the Col of Patience. I mean it’s kind of funny, because when I talk about it, I remember certain sections of the climb really well, but it’s like a dream when you’re talking about it. When you’re dreaming, you remember these really strange details of the dream, but you don’t really remember the entire dream. So I remember on the head wall placing that red C3, or I remember following some ice pitches that Jason just led, and looking off into the ice caps and being like, wow this is unreal.

「從Col of Patience到山頂,我們爬了大概13個小時。有趣的是,現在我正在聊這件事,我清楚記得幾個特定的片段,這就像一場夢,當你談論自己做的夢,你記得夢裡一些奇怪的細節,但你不太會記得整個夢的全貌。我記得自己在headwall上怎樣放置那個紅色的C3,或是自己怎樣跟攀一些Jason先鋒的冰攀段,同時眺望著眾多冰帽,感覺相當不真實啊。


“We were talking at the summit about the climb, we were talking about how y’know this thing goes without these bolts, it goes without the bold ladders, and it’s been talked about for 40 years, and all of our heroes have been talking about removing these bolts. By no means are we anywhere near as good of climbers as these legends of ours, but we felt that, y’know, we needed to restore Cerro Torre to a more natural state. In my mind, at least, just give it a bit more respect, ‘cause I think it deserves a lot of respect. It’s all about rising to the occasion of the mountain, and we had it real lucky, but still, that’s how the mountains go.



People are still talking about Cerro Torre as they always have: the style of climbing, the bolt ladders, and now, their removal, which maybe shows the power that something so gorgeous, so natural, and so alluring that holds on us as humans. And yeah, climbing is supposed to be fun. But something far beyond simple lalala fun drives us to approach these gorgeous and formidable places. Perhaps Cerro Torre remains a reminder that how we treat the things we profess to love says something about who we are.

“You know, the mountains don’t wait for us. We wait for them.”



英文校對/Nathan Ball